In recent years, text generation has become an increasingly popular field of study and development. With advancements in natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning, creating algorithms capable of generating coherent and contextually relevant text has become more achievable.

In this article, we will delve into the fundamentals of building a basic text generator, exploring the underlying concepts, techniques, and tools involved.

A text generator, also known as a language model, is an AI-powered system that produces human-like text based on a given input or prompt. It utilizes statistical patterns and semantic structures from a large corpus of training data to generate new text that is coherent and contextually relevant.

Key Components of a Text Generator

The foundation of any text generator is the training data, which is a large collection of text documents. This corpus can be sourced from books, articles, websites, or any other text source relevant to the desired domain. The quality and diversity of the training data greatly influence the performance of the text generation. Before training a text generator, it is essential to preprocess the training data. This involves tasks such as tokenization, stemming, lemmatization, and removing stopwords. Tokenization splits the text into individual words or tokens while stemming and lemmatization reduce words to their base or root forms. Removing stopwords eliminates common words that do not contribute significantly to the meaning of the text.

Neural Network Architecture:

Text generators typically employ recurrent neural networks (RNNs) or transformers as their underlying architecture. RNNs, such as long short-term memory (LSTM) or gated recurrent unit (GRU), are well-suited for generating sequential data like text. Transformers, on the other hand, have gained popularity due to their ability to capture long-range dependencies and parallelize computation effectively.

During the training process, the text generator learns patterns and relationships from the preprocessed training data. It involves feeding the input sequence to the neural network, which predicts the next word in the sequence. By comparing the predicted word with the actual word, the network’s parameters are adjusted through backpropagation and gradient descent, gradually improving the model’s performance.

Techniques for Text Generation:

One of the simplest approaches to text generation is based on Markov models. Markov models utilize probability distributions to predict the next word based on the previous words in a sequence. However, they often suffer from a lack of long-term coherence and struggle with generating meaningful and contextually rich text.

RNNs have emerged as a powerful technique for text generation due to their ability to model sequential data effectively. The network maintains an internal state, allowing it to capture information from past inputs. LSTM and GRU variants of RNNs are commonly used for text-generation tasks.


Transformers have revolutionized the field of text generation with their attention mechanisms and parallelization capabilities. They excel at modeling long-range dependencies and can generate high-quality text by considering the entire context of the input sequence. Models like GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) have achieved remarkable results in various natural language processing tasks.

Evaluating Text Generation:

Perplexity is a commonly used metric to evaluate the performance of a text generator. It measures how well the model predicts the next word in a given sequence. Lower perplexity values indicate better performance, as the model has a lower degree of uncertainty.

Ultimately, the quality of text generated by a language model is subjective and depends on human judgment. Conducting human evaluations, where individuals rate the generated text based on factors like coherence, fluency, and relevance, provides valuable insights into the model’s effectiveness.

Tools and Libraries:

Building a text generator from scratch can be a complex task. Thankfully, several tools and libraries simplify the process and provide ready-to-use frameworks for text generation. Some popular options include:

  • OpenAI’s GPT: The GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) series by OpenAI offers powerful pretrained language models that can be fine-tuned for specific text generation tasks.
  • Hugging Face’s Transformers: Transformers is a popular library that provides pre-trained models and utilities for building and fine-tuning text generation models.
  • TensorFlow and PyTorch: These deep learning frameworks offer a wide range of tools and APIs to develop and train text generators using various neural network architectures.


Text generation is a fascinating field that has seen significant advancements in recent years. By utilizing techniques such as recurrent neural networks and transformers, developers can create sophisticated text generators capable of producing coherent and contextually relevant text. With the help of readily available tools and libraries, building a basic text generator has become more accessible than ever before. As the field continues to evolve, we can expect further improvements in the quality and creativity of generated text, opening up exciting possibilities for applications in various domains.


Here are 10 frequently asked questions about text generation along with brief answers:

  • What is text generation?

Text generation is the process of using artificial intelligence algorithms to generate human-like text based on a given input or prompt.

  • How does text generation work?

Text generation models are trained on large datasets of existing text and learn patterns and relationships to generate new text that is coherent and contextually relevant.

  • What are some common applications of text generation?

Text generation finds applications in various fields, including chatbots, language translation, content creation, poetry generation, and personalized recommendations.

  • What are the key techniques used in text generation?

Techniques like Markov models, recurrent neural networks (RNNs), and transformers are commonly used in text generation tasks.

  • How do you evaluate the quality of generated text?

Text generation models can be evaluated using metrics like perplexity to measure prediction accuracy, and human evaluations to assess factors like coherence and relevance.

  • Can text generators be biased?

Yes, text generators can inherit biases present in the training data. Care must be taken to ensure fair and unbiased text generation by using diverse and carefully curated training data.

  • Can text generators be controlled or influenced?

Yes, text generation models can be fine-tuned or conditioned on specific input prompts to influence the generated text’s style, tone, or topic.

  • Are text generators capable of creativity?

Text generators can produce novel and creative text to some extent, but they lack genuine creativity and understanding like humans do.

  • How much training data is needed for a text generator?

The quality and quantity of training data significantly impact the performance of a text generator. More diverse and extensive training data generally leads to better results.

  • What tools or libraries can be used for text generation?

Popular tools and libraries for text generation include OpenAI’s GPT, Hugging Face’s Transformers, and deep learning frameworks like TensorFlow and PyTorch.